Under 2 Coalition


Name of initiative Under2 Coalition
LPAA initiative Yes
NAZCA Initiative Yes
Website address https://www.theclimategroup.org/under2-coalition
Related initiatives
Starting year 2015
End year
Secretariat Mary-Claire Harvey, Project Coordinator for the Under2 Coalition, MCharvey@theclimategroup.org

Nehmat Kaur, Head of Global Government Relations, NKaur@theclimategroup.org Under2 Coalition Secretariat The Climate Group Adam House, 7-10 Adam Street, London, WC2N 6AA, United Kingdom t: +44 (0)20 7960 2970

Organisational structure The Under2 Coalition is a global community of state and regional governments committed to ambitious climate action in line with the Paris Agreement. The Climate Group acts as secretariat to the Under2 Coalition.

Co-Chairs The work of the Under2 Coalition is driven by our Co-Chairs, which represent and promote our collective vision and goals. Our Co-Chairs are: Africa Co-Chair nominee: Sihle Zikalala, Premier of KwaZulu-Natal Europe Co-Chair nominee: Winfried Kretschmann, Minister-President of Baden-Württemberg Latin-America Co-Chair nominee: Miguel Lifschitz, Governor of Santa Fe North-America Co-Chair nominee: Jay Inslee, Governor of Washington State

Steering Group

The Co-Chairs are supported by a Steering Group, which determines and oversees the strategic direction.

Our Steering Group member governments are: • Australian Capital Territory, Australia (Asia-Pacific) • California, United States of America (North America) • Catalonia, Spain (Europe) • Cross River State, Nigeria (Africa) • Emilia-Romagna, Italy (Europe) • Lombardy, Italy (Europe) • North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (Europe) • Pastaza, Ecuador (Latin America) • Québec, Canada (North America) • Sao Paolo, Brazil (Latin America) • South Australia, Australia (Asia-Pacific) • Tucumán, Argentina (Latin America) • Victoria, Australia (Asia-Pacific) • Wales, United Kingdom (Europe)

Geographical coverage Global
Name of lead organisation The Climate Group
Type of lead organisation NGO/Civil Society
Location/Nationality of lead organisation United Kingdom


Description The coalition brings together more than 220 governments who represent over 1.3 billion people and 43% of the global economy. These governments include signatories to the Under2 Memorandum of Understanding as well as national endorsers and other supporters. There are 118 individual states and regions who have signed the Under2 MOU and are currently active members of the Under2 Coalition. Signatories commit to keeping global temperature rises to well below 2°C with efforts to reach 1.5°C. Nineteen states and regions in the coalition have committed to reaching net-zero emissions by 2050 or earlier.

The Climate Group is the Secretariat to the Under2 Coalition and works with governments to accelerate climate action through its three workstreams:

2050 PATHWAYS Deep decarbonization pathway planning: supporting governments to develop robust medium and long-term (2050) emissions reduction plans in line with the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement.

POLICY ACTION Scaling innovative policy solutions: spreading today’s best climate policies and developing new policies to ensure full decarbonization.

TRANSPARENCY Mainstreaming transparency: supporting governments so they have the expertise and systems in place to assess their emissions accurately, track progress and ensure policies remain fit for delivering against climate targets.

Objectives The Under2 MOU brings together ambitious states and regions willing to make a number of key commitments to accelerate climate action. Central to the agreement is that all signatories agree to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95%, or limit to 2 metric tons CO2-equivalent per capita, by 2050.
Activities Under2 MOU is in line with scientifically established emissions levels necessary to limit global warming below 2 degrees Celsius; offers an opportunity for states, regions, and cities to share ideas and best practices on how to reduce GHGs and promote renewable energy; provides a model for other subnationals to join; brings international attention to the actions and ambitious reduction goals of climate leaders at a subnational level around the globe; demonstrates the collective impact of these actions and commitments across states, regions, cities, and countries; and highlights the diversity of approaches to reducing emissions.
One or two success stories achieved In 2019, we have implemented three new major projects, The Climate Pathway Project (NICFI), The Climate Footprint Project (IKI) and the Industry Transition Platform (ITP), to work with subnational governments to accelerate climate action in heavily-polluting industry, bring support for monitoring and reporting carbon emissions and work to improve land-use systems (https://www.under2coalition.org/project/transparency).

2019 is the third year of the Future Fund initiative, that works to empower emerging and developing regions to accelerate climate action through project funding and knowledge-building secondments (https://www.under2coalition.org/project/future-fund).

Monitoring and Impacts

Sustainable Development Impact:
E SDG goals icons-individual-rgb-13.png  
Function of initiative Implementation
Activity of initiative Goal setting (ex-ante)
Goal setting (ex-ante) — Stakeholders who have committed to the goals
Value (#)222
Goal setting (ex-ante) — Total Mitigation
Value (MtCO2e/yr)5000
Goals Central to the agreement is that all signatories agree to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95%, or limit to 2 metric tons CO2-equivalent per capita, by 2050.
Comments on indicators and goals
How will goals be achieved "Pathways

We take government’s long-term GHG emissions reduction goals, and help identify the technologies, infrastructure and investments that will be required to achieve them. Policymakers can then set intermediate milestones and better understand the costs, risks, trade-offs and co-benefits associated with different policy approaches.

Policy Actions

With a focus on peer learning and regional policy diffusion, our projects provide platforms for sharing experience, evaluating policy and developing partnerships between states and regions in different parts of the world.


We support signatories to strengthen their GHG accounting capacity, increase transparent disclosure of their climate change mitigation progress and solve the most challenging sectoral accounting challenges."

Have you changed or strenghtened your goals
Progress towards the goals The Climate Group was selected as the Under2 Coalition’s official secretariat at COP21 and secured funding to establish the first phase of the Under2 Coalition. This enabled the establishment of the secretariat, recruitment of further signatories and creation of work streams required in order to support signatories to achieve their deep decarbonization objectives.

Specific progress made in 2019 includes:

- Nearly forty Under2 Coalition regions are taking part in projects led by The Climate Group.

- In 2019, the Under2 Coalition is working with the Colombian national government, PwC, E3 Asesorias, Ian Callaghan Associates, Ricardo Energy & Environment, and partner financial institutions (such as BNP Paribas) to provide capacity-building and expert coaching to companies with climate project proposals on blended finance and other innovative climate finance mechanisms.

- In 2019, the Under2 Coalition has again been recognized as one of the international partnerships with the highest emissions reduction potential. If we all achieve our targets, we will collectively remove more than the current annual emissions of the European Union by 2030 - between 4.6-5.0 Gigatons of Co2 equivalent emissions.

- Collectively, Under2 Coalition members are now taking nearly 3,000 climate actions across key sectors such as buildings, energy, transport, land use and more. "Five years of highlights from the Under2 Coalition

Growing from 12 to 220 members across the world 15% of member states and regions now have net-zero targets 1.3 billion people represented in our membership Delivering major global projects with states and regions in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America The Coalition has a cumulative emissions reduction potential of 4.6 to 5.0 gigatons CO2e emissions per year by 2030 - around 15% of annual global emissions


How are you tracking progress of your initiative Signatories to the Under2 MOU are invited to anually report their GHG emissions and climate actions to CDP, in partnership with The Climate Group. 2019 saw a record 124 state and regions report.
Available reporting Each signatory’s individual objectives in order to reach the Coalition’s common target are described in their Appendix to the Under2 MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) available in 10 languages here: https://www.under2coalition.org/under2-mou.

The appendices are available online in English, Spanish and French: https://www.under2coalition.org/how-join

By signing the Under2 MOU, signatories commit to start working towards consistent monitoring, reporting and verification of their GHG emissions. Jurisdictions are also incentivized to annually disclose their climate targets and progress.

New report on Regional Action: https://www.under2coalition.org/news/regions-take-action


Participants Number Names
Members 189  
Companies 0
Business organisations 0
Research and educational organisations 0
Non-governmental organisations 0
National states 22 Armenia,  Canada,  Chile,  Costa Rica,  Czech Republic,  Denmark,  Fiji,  France,  Germany,  Italy,  Japan,  Luxembourg,  Marshall Islands,  Mexico,  Netherlands,  Norway,  Panama,  Peru,  Portugal,  Spain,  Sweden,  United Kingdom
Governmental actors 0
Regional / state / county actors 131 Abruzzo (Italy),  Acre (Brazil),  Aguascalientes (Mexico),  Alsace (France),  Amapa (Brazil),  Amazonas (Brazil),  Amazonas (Peru),  (Spain),  Andalusia (Spain),  Antioquia (Colombia),  Ararat (Armenia),  Attica (Greece),  Australian Capital Territory (Australia),  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (France),  Azores (Portugal),  Azuay (Ecuador),  Baden Wurttemberg (Germany),  Baja California (Mexico),  Baja California Sur (Mexico),  Basel-Landschaft (Switzerland),  Basilicata (Italy),  Basque Country (Spain),  Bas-Rhin (France),  Bavaria (Germany),  Bolivar (Colombia),  Boyaca (Colombia),  British Columbia (Canada),  Brittany (France),  California (USA),  Campeche (Mexico),  Canton of Basel-Stadt (Switzerland),  Caquetá (Colombia),  Catalonia (Spain),  Ceara (Brazil),  Chhattisgarh (India),  Chiapas (Mexico),  Chihuahua (Mexico),  Chungcheongnam-do (South Korea),  Colima (Mexico),  Comunidad de Madrid (Spain),  Connecticut (USA),  Cross River State (Nigeria),  Cundinamarka (Columbia),  Drenthe (Netherlands),  East Kalimantan (Indonesia),  Emilia-Romagna (Italy),  Espirito Santo (Spain),  Galicia (Spain),  Gauteng (South Africa),  Gifu (Japan),  Guainia (Colombia),  Guanajuato (Mexico),  Guaviare (Colombia),  Hawaii (USA),  Hesse (Germany),  Hidalgo (Mexico),  Huánuco (Peru),  Isle of Man (United K.),  Jalisco (Mexico),  Jammu and Kashmir (India),  Jamtland (Sweden),  Jiangsu Province (China),  Jujuy (Argentina),  Kathmandu Valley (Nepal),  Kotayk (Armenia),  KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa),  Laikipia County (Kenya),  La Reunion (France),  L'Assemblée des Régions de Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast),  Lombardy (Italy),  Loreto (Italy),  Loreto (Peru),  Lower Austria (Austria),  Lower Saxony (Germany),  Madeira (Portugal),  Madre de Dios (Brazil),  Maharashtra (India),  Maine (USA),  Massachusetts (USA),  Mato Grosso (Brazil),  Mexico State (Mexixo),  Michoacán (Mexico),  Midi-Pyrénées (France),  Minas Gerais (Brazil),  Minnesota (USA),  Nariño (Colombia),  Navarra (Spain),  Nevada (USA),  New Hampshire (USA),  New South Wales (Australia),  New York State (USA),  North Bank Region (Gambia),  North Brabant (Netherlands),  North Holland (Netherlands),  North Kalimantan (Indonesia),  North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany),  Northern Ireland (United K.),  Northern Territory (Australia),  Northwest Territoy (Canada),  Nouvelle-Aquitaine (France),  Nuevo Leon (Mexico),  Oaxaca (Mexico),  Occitanie (France),  Oregon (USA),  Ontario (Canada),  Papua (Indonesia),  Para (Brazil),  Pastaza (Ecuador),  Pays de la Loire (France),  Pernambuco (Brazil),  Piedmont (Italy),  Piura (Peru),  Quebec (Canada),  Queensland (Australia),  Querétaro (Mexico),  Quintana Roo (Mexico),  Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany),  Rhode Island (USA),  Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil),  Rondônia (Brazil),  San Martín (Peru),  Santa Fe (USA),  Sao Paulo State (Brazil),  Sardinia (Italy),  Schleswig-Holstein Germany),  Scotland (United Kingdom),  Shirak (Armenia),  Sichuan Province (China),  Sonora (Mexico),  South Australia (Austalia),  South Holland (Netherlands),  South Sumatra (Indonesia),  Tabasco (Mexico),  Telangana (India),  Thuringia (Germany),  Tocantins (Brazil),  Tucumán (Argentina),  Ucayali (Peru),  Upper Austria (Austria),  Veneto (Italy),  Vermont (USA),  Victor (USA),  Victoria (Australia),  Viken (Norway),  Virginia (USA),  Wales (United Kingdom),  Wallonia (Belgium),  Washington (USA),  West Bengal (India),  West Kalimantan (Indonesia),  Western Cape (South Africa),  Yucatán (Mexico).
City / municipal actors 36 ACCR - Association of Cities of Country Rank (Hungary),  Alliance of Peaking Pioneer Cities - APPC (China),  Amapá (Brazil),  Atlanta City (USA),  Austin City (USA),  Basel (Switzerland),  Beijing City (China),  Boulder (USA),  Bristol City (United Kingdom),  Budapest City (Hungary)Colombia),  Caqueta (Colombia),  Comunidad de Madrid (Spain),  Greater Manchester City (United Kingdom),  Guédiawaye City (Senegal),  Guanajuato (Mexico),  Guainía (Colombia),  Guaviare (Armenia),  Huánuco (Peru),  Los Angeles City (USA),  Mexico City (Mexico),  Nampula City (Mozambique),  New York City (USA),  Oakland City (USA),  Orlando City (USA),  Pittsburgh City (USA),  Portland City (USA),  Quelimane City (Mozambique),  Sacramento City (USA),  San Francisco City (USA),  Santiago City (Chile),  São Paulo City (Brazil),  Seattle City (USA),  Shirak (Armenia),  Vancouver City (Canada),  Zhenjiang City (China).
Intergovernmental organisations 0
Financial Institutions 0
Faith based organisations 0
Other members 0
Supporting partners 0
Number of members in the years
Have only national states as participators No


Transport Agriculture Forestry Business Financial institutions Buildings Industry Waste Cities and subnational governments Short Term Pollutants International maritime transport Energy Supply Fluorinated gases Energy efficiency Renewable energy Supply chain emission reductions Adaptation Other Resilience Innovation Energy Access and Efficiency Private Finance
Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No
Last update: 13 October 2022 12:27:15

Not only have national states as participators